Bank being financial institution is being liable for fund transfer from one account to another account in payment services. Banks use different technology to transfer funds from one account to another. So in USA, banks and other financial institutions practice a mechanism of routing number to communicate among themselves. The routing number is also known as routing transmit number or ABA routing number consist of 9 digits assigned to all financial institution by American Bank Association(ABA).

If we go back to history of ABA, American Bank of Association which is categorised into a public bank started its functioning from 1875.It is group of all size of banks. It has been largest bank in USA offering wide range of financial services like capital management, assets and risk management,insurance,staff training etc.It also promote the research for developing new industry standards and banking practices. It has credit to capture more than 90%  of bank assets in USA.It also has set a record of employing more than two million people in country.

The ABA made notable development in 1910 with introduction of routing numer.The routing number is nine-digit unique codes used to identify financial institution in member group. This nine-digit code is printed at bottom of cheque. It helps in sorting, bundling and executing delivery of a cheque in paper mode from account of drawer to account of payee. The Federal Reserve Bank practices, a central bank of America, ABA RTN in executing Fed wire fund transfer.Fedwire previously popular with the name of Fedral Reserve Wire Network, is a real time gross settlement mechanism for electronic fund transfer. The Fed wire is controlled by Fedral reserve bank which allows the financial institutions to make an electronic fund transfer among member countries. The ABA RTN is also used by Automated Clearing House Network (ACH).


The American Bank Association has contracted with the bunch of registrar to manage the ABA routing number system. Currently The Acuity is the official routing number registrar for ABA. It is obliged for assigning ABA RTN and managing ABA RTN system. The Accuity publishes the American Bankers Association Key to Routing number half yearly. The key Book is storage of list of all ABA RTNs that have assigned. The Acuity gives financial crime compliance software that permits the financial institution to comply with sanction and anti-money laundering compliance programmes. Every bank is assigned at least one ABA RTN.ABA RTNs are only used in United States of America for payment purpose. It is used in paper cheque, wire transfer and ACH transaction. Normally in-house transaction in America which uses ABA RTN will return to the paying bank.

The RTN numbers in America were originated in 1911.In early phase bank were denying to use it for identification but it was decided to use convenient numbers by all bank  from a meeting held in December 1910.In May 1911,the codes were assigned to banks by ABA. The committee who finalised these numbers were W.G. Schroeder, C.R.Mckay and J.A.Walker but publisher of new directory became Rand-McNally and company. The ABA clearing house codes are the same as sub-headings in a decimal outline. Here the prefix is location and suffix mean banking firm within that location. In prefex, half represent major cities and remaining half demonstrate regions of America and lower prefix show higher population as per 1910 united state census. Within each prefix area, banks are serially numbered as per sequence of city population and bank seniority. If new bank comes into existence, current publisher of directory of bank assign it a transit code.

The ABA RTN appears in two ways on a standard cheque. One in the fraction from and second in Magnetic ink character recognition (MICR).Though both form vary but they are useful with same information. The MICR is latest form. It is printed in magnetic ink and is machine readable. It consist of nine digit and located at bottom left of cheque. The MICR which consist of none digit are also known as Routing Transit Number (RTN) or ABA Routing number. Whereas fraction form of ABA RTN was used for manual processing before invention of MICR technology. The fraction form still is kept as back up to MICR when MICR get torned or non-functioning. It is located at upper right of cheque.

The following is appearance of both MICR and Fraction form.


Above in MICR, XXXX is Federal Reserve routing symbol and YYYY is ABA institution identifier.

Fraction form-PP-YYYY/XXXX

In above Fraction form, PP is a 1 or 2 digit prefix, it is no longer used in processing but still printed showing bank’s cheque processing centre location with 1 through 49 for processing centres located in a major city and 50 through 99 representing processing is done at non-major city in a particular state. Sometimes a branch number or account number are printed below the fraction form. Branch number is not used in processing while the account number are printed below is listed in MICR form at bottom. Further the Federal Reserve Routing symbol and ABA institution identifier may have fewer than 4 digits in the fraction form. The essential data showed by both the forms is Federal Reserve Routing Symbol and ABA institution identifier and these are usually the same in both the fraction form and the MICR, with only the order and format switched.

The prefix and the Federal Reserve Routing Symbol (XXXX) are decided by the bank’s geographical location and treatment by the Federal Reserve type, while the remaining data (YYYY, Branch number if present) depends on specific bank and are unique within a Federal Reserve district. 

Bank of America Routing number

StateBank of America routing numberStateBank of America routing number
Bank of America Albama051000017Bank of America New Jersey021200339
Bank of America Arkansas082000073Bank of America North Carolina053000196
Bank of America Connecticut0119000254Bank of America Oklahoma103000017
Bank of America Florida063100277\063000047Bank of America Rhode Island011500010
Bank of America Hawaii051000017Bank of America Tennessee064000020
Bank of America lIIinois,North071000505Bank of America Utah051000017
Bank of America lowa073000176Bank of America Washington125000024
Bank of America Louisiana051000017Bank of America Wyoming051000017
Bank of AmericaMassachusetts011000138Bank of America Arizona122101706
Bank of America Mississipi051000017Bank of America Colorado123103716
Bank of America Montana051000017Bank of America Columbia054001204
Bank of America New Hampshire011400495Bank of America Georgia061000052
Bank of America New York021000322Bank of America Indiana071214579
Bank of America Ohio051000017Bank of America Kentucky051000017
Bank of America Pennsylvania031202084Bank of America Maryland052001633
Bank of America south Dakota051000017Bank of America Minnesota071214579
Bank of America Texas111000025/113000023Bank of America Missouri,West081000033
Bank of America Virginia051000017Bank of America Nevada122400724
Bank of America Winsconsin051000017Bank of America New Mexico107000327
Bank of America Alaska051000018Bank of America North Dacota051000017
Bank of America California121000358Bank of America Oregon323070380
Bank of America Delaware031202084Bank of America South Carolina053904483
Bank of America Florida,west063100277Bank of America Texas North111000025
Bank of America Idaho123103716Bank of America Vermont051000017
Bank of America IIIinois,Chicago Metro081904808/0071103619Bank of America Virginia051000017
Bank of America Kansas101100045Bank of America Missouri,East081000032\101000035
Bank of America Maine011200365Bank of America Nebraksha051000017
Bank of America Michigan072000805
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